MIT Africa Learning Circle (ALC), an academic branch of the "MIT African Students Association", is a platform where Africans and anyone interested in Africa on MIT campus and Boston area get together to discuss matter relating to the Africa's history, current affairs, future and culture, as well as possibility of realizing Nkrumah’s united Africa.
Founded in 2017 as a response to the confirmed thirst for knowledge among African undergraduates on campus, these open gatherings occurred in the BSU Lounge and themes such as the textile industry, the Pan-African thought of Independence leaders (Kwame Nkrumah) were evoked and analyzed. These weekly discussion have drawn attendance from a diverse set of MIT classes, majors, nationalities as well as students from other University including the Africa leadership university.
The factors which contributed to the success of ALC include the absence of such environment at MIT as well as the little space that the history of African people occupies in Western and “International” high school curriculums. This gap created a thirst for knowledge about African history that ALC is slowly trying to fill through these regular meetings as well as other forthcoming initiatives.
- Passion for Africa
- Vigorous study of the Continent’s History, current affairs, future, and culture
- A more open and diverse (Different countries, majors and years groups) platform to share ideas, experience, and opinions.
- Discussions on African American’s history, culture and experience
- Entrepreneurial spirit
- Sharing our learning and opinions to ASA, MIT and beyond
- To put our ideas into action in form of projects
- Leadership potential
Physical Classes On Campus
- MIT Splash
- MIT Spark
- MIT CPW
Disseminating learning online
- The MIT Tech articles
- MIT Admissions blog
- Write wikipedia articles
- MIT ASA website
- MIT slice of mit alumni site
- (https://talkingdrum.mit.edu) ----work in progress
Two days after the chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref name="LoC"></ref> In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.<ref name="BostonTech1">Template:Cite book</ref>
MIT was informally called "Boston Tech".<ref name="BostonTech1" /> The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.<ref name="Dunbar1">Template:Cite journal</ref> Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="Munroe1923a">Template:Cite book</ref> new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand.<ref name="Dunbar1" />
The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.<ref>Lewis 1949, p. 12.</ref> The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard.<ref name=Alexander>Template:Cite web</ref> In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni.<ref name="Alexander" /> However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme.<ref name="Alexander" />
In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion,<ref>MIT Museum, "Bucentaur"</ref><ref>MIT Museum charter carried to the Bucentaur</ref> to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite map</ref> The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million ($Template:Inflation million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios.<ref name="Lecuyer">Template:Cite journal</ref> The Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering".<ref name="Lewis 1949, p. 13.">Lewis 1949, p. 13.</ref> Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants for its funding.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> The school was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934.<ref name="AAU">Template:Cite web</ref>
Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at MIT that "the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school", a "partly unjustified" perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities.<ref>Lewis 1949, p. 113.</ref><ref name="MITTECHNOLOGYREVIEW">Bourzac, Katherine, "Rethinking an MIT Education: The faculty reconsiders the General Institute Requirements", Technology Review, Monday, March 12, 2007</ref> The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs.<ref name="SchoolOfHASS">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="SloanSchool">Template:Cite web</ref> The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>
MIT's involvement in military science surged during World War II. In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT.<ref name="Zachary1">Template:Cite book</ref> Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, established in 1940 to assist the British military in developing microwave radar. The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area.<ref name="RadLab">Template:Cite web</ref> Other defense projects included gyroscope-based and other complex control systems for gunsight, bombsight, and inertial navigation under Charles Stark Draper's Instrumentation Laboratory;<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> the development of a digital computer for flight simulations under Project Whirlwind;<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and high-speed and high-altitude photography under Harold Edgerton.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref></ref> By the end of the war, MIT became the nation's largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush),<ref name="Zachary1" /> employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone<ref name="RadLab" /> and receiving in excess of $100 million ($Template:Inflation billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946.<ref name="Lewis 1949, p. 13." /> Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for ballistic missiles and Project Apollo.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>
These activities affected MIT profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of "any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute" to match the return to peacetime, remembering the "academic tranquility of the prewar years", though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities.<ref>Lewis 1949, p. 49.</ref> The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of Karl Taylor Compton, president of MIT between 1930 and 1948; James Rhyne Killian, president from 1948 to 1957; and Julius Adams Stratton, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, MIT no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government.<ref>Lecuyer, 1992</ref>
In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the Vietnam War and MIT's defense research.<ref name="Ins and outs"></ref><ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> In this period MIT's various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam as well as guidance systems for nuclear missiles.<ref>MIT Review Panel on Special Laboratories Final Report; S.Leslie, The Cold War and American Science. The military-industrial complex at MITand Stanford; M.Albert, Remembering Tomorrow, p97-99; 'MIT may be dangerous to the world', The Tech, 28/4/72, p5; 'Why Smash MIT?' in I.Wallerstein, University Crisis Reader, vol.2, p240-3; The Technology Review, December 1969.</ref> The Union of Concerned Scientists was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> MIT ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the MIT Lincoln Laboratory facility in 1973 in response to the protests.<ref></ref><ref></ref> The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities.<ref name="Ins and outs"/> Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to "greater strength and unity" after these times of turmoil.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> However six MIT students were sentenced to prison terms at this time and some former student leaders, such as Michael Albert and George Katsiaficas, are still indignant about MIT's role in military research and its suppression of these protests.<ref>'Battering Ram: The occupation of the president's office', The Tech, 14/12/71 p4 and The Tech, 4/8/72; M.Albert, Remembering Tomorrow p9, 97-99; 'Michael Albert interview', 17/4/07; G.Katsiaficas, 'Review of Howard Johnson's Holding the Center; S.Shalom, 'A flawed political biography', New Politics, Issue 23.</ref> (Richard Leacock's film, November Actions, records some of these tumultuous events.<ref>November Actions youtube extract'. See also: MIT Museum photos of student activism, 1960s/1970s.</ref>)
In the 1980s, there was more controversy at MIT over its involvement in SDI (space weaponry) and CBW (chemical and biological warfare) research.<ref>The Tech, 27 May 1988, p2, 11 and 24 February 1989, p5 and 7 March 1989, 2, 16; The Thistle, Vol. 9 No.7; Science for the People, Vol.20 January/February 1988, p17-25, 41-2 and March/April 1988, p6.</ref> More recently, MIT’s research for the military has included work on robots, drones and ‘battle suits’.<ref>MIT News, ‘MIT cheetah robot lands the running jump’ (2015) and ‘Driving drones can be a drag’ (2012); ‘Department of Defense Announces Successful Micro-Drone Demonstration’ (2017); MIT Technology Review, 20 March 2002.</ref>
MIT has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies,<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman's GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology;<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee;<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> the OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 MIT classes available online free of charge since 2002;<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT was named a sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into biology, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and a number of new "backlot" buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School's eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref></ref> In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing global energy consumption.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
In 2001, inspired by the open source and open access movements,<ref></ref> MIT launched OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabuses, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed.<ref></ref> While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high,<ref></ref> OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages.<ref></ref> In 2011, MIT announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its "MITx" program, for a modest fee.<ref></ref> The "edX" online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard and its analogous "Harvardx" initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content.<ref></ref>
Three days after the Boston Marathon bombing of April 2013, MIT Police patrol officer Sean Collier was fatally shot by the suspects Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day.<ref></ref> One week later, Collier's memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the MIT community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada.<ref name=Bidgood></ref><ref name=Faviero></ref><ref></ref> On November 25, 2013, MIT announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to "an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of the MIT community and in all aspects of his life". The announcement further stated that "Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness".<ref name=MITNCM></ref><ref name=MITCM>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=Rocheleau></ref>
In September 2017, the school announced the creation of an artificial intelligence research lab called the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. IBM will spend $240 million over the next decade and the lab will be staffed by MIT and IBM scientists.<ref></ref>
MIT's Template:Convert campus in the city of Cambridge spans approximately a mile along the north side of the Charles River basin.<ref name="Campus">Template:Cite web</ref> The campus is divided roughly in half by Massachusetts Avenue, with most dormitories and student life facilities to the west and most academic buildings to the east. The bridge closest to MIT is the Harvard Bridge, which is known for being marked off in a non-standard unit of length – the smoot.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref></ref>
The Kendall MBTA Red Line station is located on the northeastern edge of the campus, in Kendall Square. The Cambridge neighborhoods surrounding MIT are a mixture of high tech companies occupying both modern office and rehabilitated industrial buildings, as well as socio-economically diverse residential neighborhoods.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="BO"/> In early 2016, MIT presented its updated Kendall Square Initiative to the City of Cambridge, with plans for mixed-use educational, retail, residential, startup incubator, and office space in a dense high-rise transit-oriented development plan.<ref name="KSI2016">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="KSI-home" /> The MIT Museum will eventually be moved immediately adjacent to a Kendall Square subway entrance, joining the List Visual Arts Center on the eastern end of the campus.<ref name="KSI-home">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="MITN20140923"></ref>
Each building at MIT has a number (possibly preceded by a W, N, E, or NW) designation and most have a name as well. Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to primarily by number while residence halls are referred to by name. The organization of building numbers roughly corresponds to the order in which the buildings were built and their location relative (north, west, and east) to the original center cluster of Maclaurin buildings.<ref name="Numbering system">Template:Cite web</ref> Many of the buildings are connected above ground as well as through an extensive network of underground tunnels, providing protection from the Cambridge weather as well as a venue for roof and tunnel hacking.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref></ref>
MIT's on-campus nuclear reactor<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> is one of the most powerful university-based nuclear reactors in the United States. The prominence of the reactor's containment building in a densely populated area has been controversial,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> but MIT maintains that it is well-secured.<ref></ref> In 1999 Bill Gates donated US$20 million to MIT for the construction of a computer laboratory named the "William H. Gates Building", and designed by architect Frank Gehry. While Microsoft had previously given financial support to the institution, this was the first personal donation received from Gates.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Other notable campus facilities include a pressurized wind tunnel and a towing tank for testing ship and ocean structure designs.<ref></ref><ref></ref> MIT's campus-wide wireless network was completed in the fall of 2005 and consists of nearly 3,000 access points covering Template:Convert of campus.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency sued MIT for violating the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act with regard to its hazardous waste storage and disposal procedures.<ref name="EPA">Template:Cite web</ref> MIT settled the suit by paying a $155,000 fine and launching three environmental projects.<ref></ref> In connection with capital campaigns to expand the campus, the Institute has also extensively renovated existing buildings to improve their energy efficiency. MIT has also taken steps to reduce its environmental impact by running alternative fuel campus shuttles, subsidizing public transportation passes, and building a low-emission cogeneration plant that serves most of the campus electricity, heating, and cooling requirements.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
The MIT Police with state and local authorities, in the 2009-2011 period, have investigated reports of 12 forcible sex offenses, 6 robberies, 3 aggravated assaults, 164 burglaries, 1 case of arson, and 4 cases of motor vehicle theft on campus; affecting a community of around 22,000 students and employees.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT has substantial commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge on which it pays property taxes, plus an additional voluntary payment in lieu of taxes (PILOT) on academic buildings which are legally tax-exempt. Template:Asof, it is the largest taxpayer in the city, contributing approximately 14% of the city's annual revenues.<ref name="CommFacts">Template:Cite web</ref> Holdings include Technology Square, parts of Kendall Square, and many properties in Cambridgeport and Area 4 neighboring the educational buildings.<ref>Institutional Ownership Map - Cambridge Massachusetts</ref> The land is held for investment purposes and potential long-term expansion.
African Movies, TV Shows and Dramas
|1986||"You Must Be Joking"||South Africa|
|1987||You Must Be Joking! Too||South Africa||43 000 000|
|1989||Oh Schucks...It's Schuster!||South Africa|
|1990||Oh Shucks! Here Comes UNTAG||South Africa|
|1991||Sweet 'n Short||South Africa|
|1993||Yankee Zulu||South Africa|
|1996||Panic Mechanic||South Africa|
|1999||Millennium Menace||South Africa||R40 million|
|2001||Mr Bones||South Africa||R33 million|
|2004||Oh Schuks... I'm Gatvol||South Africa|
|2005||Mama Jack||South Africa|
|2008||Mr Bones 2: Back from the Past||South Africa||R35 million|
|2010||Schuks Tshabalala's Survival Guide to South Africa||South Africa|
|2012||Mad Buddies||South Africa|
|2013||Schuks! Your Country Needs You||South Africa|
|2015||Schuks! Pay Back The Money||South Africa|
Undergraduates are guaranteed four-year housing in one of MIT's 12 undergraduate dormitories.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Those living on campus can receive support and mentoring from live-in graduate student tutors, resident advisors, and faculty housemasters.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Because housing assignments are made based on the preferences of the students themselves, diverse social atmospheres can be sustained in different living groups; for example, according to the Yale Daily News staff's The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010, "The split between East Campus and West Campus is a significant characteristic of MIT. East Campus has gained a reputation as a thriving counterculture."<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> MIT also has 5 dormitories for single graduate students and 2 apartment buildings on campus for married student families.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT has an active Greek and co-op housing system, including thirty-six fraternities, sororities, and independent living groups (FSILGs).<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Welcome to Appropedia/box-header Welcome to Appropedia/Intro Welcome to Appropedia/box-footer
Organization and administration
MIT is chartered as a non-profit organization and is owned and governed by a privately appointed board of trustees known as the MIT Corporation.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The current board consists of 43 members elected to five-year terms,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> 25 life members who vote until their 75th birthday,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> 3 elected officers (President, Treasurer, and Secretary),<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and 4 ex officio members (the president of the alumni association, the Governor of Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Secretary of Education, and the Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court).<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The board is chaired by Robert Millard, a co-founder of L-3 Communications Holdings.<ref> </ref><ref></ref> The Corporation approves the budget, new programs, degrees and faculty appointments, and elects the President to serve as the chief executive officer of the university and preside over the Institute's faculty.<ref name="BO">Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> MIT's endowment and other financial assets are managed through a subsidiary called MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo).<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Valued at $13.182 billion in 2016, MIT's endowment is the sixth-largest among American colleges and universities.<ref name=NACUBO/>
MIT has five schools (Science, Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Management, and Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences) and one college (Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology), but no schools of law or medicine.<ref name="Schools">Template:Cite web</ref>Template:Refn While faculty committees assert substantial control over many areas of MIT's curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> the chair of each of MIT's 32 academic departments reports to the dean of that department's school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The current president is L. Rafael Reif, who formerly served as provost under President Susan Hockfield, the first woman to hold the post.<ref></ref><ref name="Hockfield">Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT is a large, highly residential, research university with a majority of enrollments in graduate and professional programs.<ref name="Carnegie">Template:Cite web</ref> The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite webTemplate:Dead linkTemplate:Cbignore</ref> MIT operates on a 4–1–4 academic calendar with the fall semester beginning after Labor Day and ending in mid-December, a 4-week "Independent Activities Period" in the month of January, and the spring semester beginning in early February and ending in late May.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT students refer to both their majors and classes using numbers or acronyms alone.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Departments and their corresponding majors are numbered in the approximate order of their foundation; for example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is Template:Nowrap, while Linguistics and Philosophy is Template:Nowrap.<ref name="Butcher">Template:Cite web</ref> Students majoring in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), the most popular department, collectively identify themselves as "Course 6". MIT students use a combination of the department's course number and the number assigned to the class to identify their subjects; the introductory calculus-based classical mechanics course is simply "8.01" at MIT.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>Template:Refn
The four-year, full-time undergraduate program maintains a balance between professional majors and those in the arts and sciences, and has been dubbed "most selective" by U.S. News,<ref name=":0" /> admitting few transfer students<ref name="Carnegie" /> and 8.0% of its applicants in the 2015 admissions cycle.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> MIT offers 44 undergraduate degrees across its five schools.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In the 2010–2011 academic year, 1,161 bachelor of science degrees (abbreviated "SB") were granted, the only type of undergraduate degree MIT now awards.Template:Update after<ref name="Degrees">Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> In the 2011 fall term, among students who had designated a major, the School of Engineering was the most popular division, enrolling 63% of students in its 19 degree programs, followed by the School of Science (29%), School of Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences (3.7%), Sloan School of Management (3.3%), and School of Architecture and Planning (2%).Template:Update after The largest undergraduate degree programs were in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (Template:Nowrap), Computer Science and Engineering (Template:Nowrap), Mechanical Engineering (Template:Nowrap), Physics (Template:Nowrap), and Mathematics (Template:Nowrap).<ref name="Enrollments"/>Template:Cite web</ref> The Science Requirement, generally completed during freshman year as prerequisites for classes in science and engineering majors, comprises two semesters of physics, two semesters of calculus, one semester of chemistry, and one semester of biology. There is a Laboratory Requirement, usually satisfied by an appropriate class in a course major. The Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) Requirement consists of eight semesters of classes in the humanities, arts, and social sciences, including at least one semester from each division as well as the courses required for a designated concentration in a HASS division. Under the Communication Requirement, two of the HASS classes, plus two of the classes taken in the designated major must be "communication-intensive",<ref name=CommReq>Template:Cite web</ref> including "substantial instruction and practice in oral presentation".<ref name=CommReqFac>Template:Cite web</ref> Finally, all students are required to complete a swimming test;<ref>"MIT's Wettest Test", Nicole Morell, December 18, 2014, technologyreview.com</ref> non-varsity athletes must also take four quarters of physical education classes.<ref name="GIR"/>
Most classes rely on a combination of lectures, recitations led by associate professors or graduate students, weekly problem sets ("p-sets"), and periodic quizzes or tests. While the pace and difficulty of MIT coursework has been compared to "drinking from a fire hose",<ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref> the freshmen retention rate at MIT is similar to other research universities.<ref name=":0">Template:Cite web</ref> The "pass/no-record" grading system relieves some pressure for first-year undergraduates. For each class taken in the fall term, freshmen transcripts will either report only that the class was passed, or otherwise not have any record of it. In the spring term, passing grades (A, B, C) appear on the transcript while non-passing grades are again not recorded.<ref name="Freshman Year">Template:Cite web</ref> (Grading had previously been "pass/no record" all freshman year, but was amended for the Class of 2006 to prevent students from gaming the system by completing required major classes in their freshman year.<ref></ref>) Also, freshmen may choose to join alternative learning communities, such as Experimental Study Group, Concourse, or Terrascope.<ref name="Freshman Year" />
In 1969, Margaret MacVicar founded the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) to enable undergraduates to collaborate directly with faculty members and researchers. Students join or initiate research projects ("UROPs") for academic credit, pay, or on a volunteer basis through postings on the UROP website or by contacting faculty members directly.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> A substantial majority of undergraduates participate.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Students often become published, file patent applications, and/or launch start-up companies based upon their experience in UROPs.<ref></ref><ref></ref>
In 1970, the then-Dean of Institute Relations, Benson R. Snyder, published The Hidden Curriculum, arguing that education at MIT was often slighted in favor of following a set of unwritten expectations, and that graduating with good grades was more often the product of figuring out the system rather than a solid education. The successful student, according to Snyder, was the one who was able to discern which of the formal requirements were to be ignored in favor of which unstated norms. For example, organized student groups had compiled "course bibles"—collections of problem-set and examination questions and answers for later students to use as references. This sort of gamesmanship, Snyder argued, hindered development of a creative intellect and contributed to student discontent and unrest.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>
MIT's graduate program has high coexistence with the undergraduate program, and many courses are taken by qualified students at both levels. MIT offers a comprehensive doctoral program with degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields as well as professional degrees.<ref name="Carnegie"/> The Institute offers graduate programs leading to academic degrees such as the Master of Science (which is abbreviated as SM at MIT), various Engineer's Degrees, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and Doctor of Science (ScD) and interdisciplinary graduate programs such as the MD-PhD (with Harvard Medical School).<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. More than 90% of doctoral students are supported by fellowships, research assistantships (RAs), or teaching assistantships (TAs).<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT awarded 1,547 master's degrees and 609 doctoral degrees in the academic year 2010–11.Template:Update after<ref name="Degrees"/> In the 2011 fall term, the School of Engineering was the most popular academic division, enrolling 45.0% of graduate students, followed by the Sloan School of Management (19%), School of Science (16.9%), School of Architecture and Planning (9.2%), Whitaker College of Health Sciences (5.1%),<ref group=lower-alpha>Figure includes 196 students working on Harvard degrees only.</ref> and School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (4.7%). The largest graduate degree programs were the Sloan MBA, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Mechanical Engineering.<ref name="Enrollments"/>
Template:Infobox US university ranking MIT also places among the top ten in many overall rankings of universities (see right) and rankings based on students' revealed preferences.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="coughlan">Template:Cite web</ref> For several years, U.S. News & World Report, the QS World University Rankings, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities have ranked MIT's School of Engineering first, as did the 1995 National Research Council report.<ref name="1995 NRC">Template:Cite web</ref> In the same lists, MIT's strongest showings apart from in engineering are in computer science, the natural sciences, business, architecture, economics, linguistics, mathematics, and, to a lesser extent, political science and philosophy.<ref name="bloomberg1"/><ref name="morgan1"/><ref name="encyclopedia1"/><ref name="britannica1"/><ref name=":1"></ref>
In 2014, Money magazine ranked MIT as third in the US "Best Colleges for Your Money", based on its assessment of "the most bang for your tuition buck", factoring in quality of education, affordability, and career outcomes.<ref name=MoneyRank></ref> Welcome to Appropedia/box-header Welcome to Appropedia/Intro Welcome to Appropedia/box-footer
Times Higher Education has recognized MIT as one of the world's "six super brands" on its World Reputation Rankings, along with Berkeley, Cambridge, Harvard, Oxford and Stanford.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
The university historically pioneered research and training collaborations between academia, industry and government.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref> In 1946, President Compton, Harvard Business School professor Georges Doriot, and Massachusetts Investor Trust chairman Merrill Grisswold founded American Research and Development Corporation, the first American venture-capital firm.<ref></ref><ref></ref> In 1948, Compton established the MIT Industrial Liaison Program.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, American politicians and business leaders accused MIT and other universities of contributing to a declining economy by transferring taxpayer-funded research and technology to international – especially Japanese – firms that were competing with struggling American businesses.<ref></ref><ref></ref> On the other hand, MIT's extensive collaboration with the federal government on research projects has led to several MIT leaders serving as presidential scientific advisers since 1940.Template:Refn MIT established a Washington Office in 1991 to continue effective lobbying for research funding and national science policy.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref></ref>
The U.S. Justice Department began an investigation in 1989, and in 1991 filed an antitrust suit against MIT, the eight Ivy League colleges, and eleven other institutions for allegedly engaging in price-fixing during their annual "Overlap Meetings", which were held to prevent bidding wars over promising prospective students from consuming funds for need-based scholarships.<ref></ref><ref></ref> While the Ivy League institutions settled,<ref></ref> MIT contested the charges, arguing that the practice was not anti-competitive because it ensured the availability of aid for the greatest number of students.<ref name="Overlap"></ref><ref></ref> MIT ultimately prevailed when the Justice Department dropped the case in 1994.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref></ref>
MIT's proximity<ref group=lower-alpha>MIT's Building 7 and Harvard's Johnston Gate, the traditional entrances to each school, are Template:Convert apart along Massachusetts Avenue.</ref> to Harvard University ("the other school up the river") has led to a substantial number of research collaborations such as the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and the Broad Institute.<ref name="EdPart"/> In addition, students at the two schools can cross-register for credits toward their own school's degrees without any additional fees.<ref name="EdPart"/> A cross-registration program between MIT and Wellesley College has also existed since 1969, and in 2002 the Cambridge–MIT Institute launched an undergraduate exchange program between MIT and the University of Cambridge.<ref name="EdPart">Template:Cite web</ref> MIT has more modest cross-registration programs with Boston University, Brandeis University, Tufts University, Massachusetts College of Art and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.<ref name="EdPart"/>
MIT maintains substantial research and faculty ties with independent research organizations in the Boston area, such as the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Ongoing international research and educational collaborations include the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS Institute), Singapore-MIT Alliance, MIT-Politecnico di Milano,<ref name="EdPart"/><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, and projects in other countries through the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) program.<ref name="EdPart"/><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
The mass-market magazine Technology Review is published by MIT through a subsidiary company, as is a special edition that also serves as an alumni magazine.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The MIT Press is a major university press, publishing over 200 books and 30 journals annually, emphasizing science and technology as well as arts, architecture, new media, current events and social issues.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Libraries, collections and museums
Template:See also The MIT library system consists of five subject libraries: Barker (Engineering), Dewey (Economics), Hayden (Humanities and Science), Lewis (Music), and Rotch (Arts and Architecture). There are also various specialized libraries and archives. The libraries contain more than 2.9 million printed volumes, 2.4 million microforms, 49,000 print or electronic journal subscriptions, and 670 reference databases. The past decade has seen a trend of increased focus on digital over print resources in the libraries.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Notable collections include the Lewis Music Library with an emphasis on 20th and 21st-century music and electronic music,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> the List Visual Arts Center's rotating exhibitions of contemporary art,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and the Compton Gallery's cross-disciplinary exhibitions.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> MIT allocates a percentage of the budget for all new construction and renovation to commission and support its extensive public art and outdoor sculpture collection.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
The MIT Museum was founded in 1971 and collects, preserves, and exhibits artifacts significant to the culture and history of MIT. The museum now engages in significant educational outreach programs for the general public, including the annual Cambridge Science Festival, the first celebration of this kind in the United States. Since 2005, its official mission has been, "to engage the wider community with MIT's science, technology and other areas of scholarship in ways that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century".<ref name="MITMuseum">Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934 and remains a research university with a very high level of research activity;<ref name="AAU"/><ref name="Carnegie"/> research expenditures totaled $718.2 million in 2009.Template:Update after<ref name="Research">Template:Cite web</ref> The federal government was the largest source of sponsored research, with the Department of Health and Human Services granting $255.9 million, Department of Defense $97.5 million, Department of Energy $65.8 million, National Science Foundation $61.4 million, and NASA $27.4 million.<ref name="Research"/> MIT employs approximately 1300 researchers in addition to faculty.<ref name=MITFac>Template:Cite web</ref> In 2011, MIT faculty and researchers disclosed 632 inventions, were issued 153 patents, earned $85.4 million in cash income, and received $69.6 million in royalties.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Through programs like the Deshpande Center, MIT faculty leverage their research and discoveries into multi-million-dollar commercial ventures.<ref></ref>
In electronics, magnetic core memory, radar, single electron transistors, and inertial guidance controls were invented or substantially developed by MIT researchers.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="RLE History"/> Harold Eugene Edgerton was a pioneer in high speed photography and sonar.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>The Edgerton Digital Collections Project "When a strobe would not do the trick in murky waters, Edgerton began working on sonar techniques to "see" with sound."</ref> Claude E. Shannon developed much of modern information theory and discovered the application of Boolean logic to digital circuit design theory.<ref></ref> In the domain of computer science, MIT faculty and researchers made fundamental contributions to cybernetics, artificial intelligence, computer languages, machine learning, robotics, and cryptography.<ref name="RLE History">Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref> At least nine Turing Award laureates and seven recipients of the Draper Prize in engineering have been or are currently associated with MIT.<ref name=TuringAward>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Robert N. Noyce, Robert Langer, Bradford W. Parkinson, Ivan A. Getting, Butler W. Lampson, Timothy J. Berners-Lee, Rudolph Kalman,</ref>
Current and previous physics faculty have won eight Nobel Prizes,<ref name="IR Nobel">Template:Cite web</ref> four Dirac Medals,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and three Wolf Prizes predominantly for their contributions to subatomic and quantum theory.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Members of the chemistry department have been awarded three Nobel Prizes and one Wolf Prize for the discovery of novel syntheses and methods.<ref name="IR Nobel"/> MIT biologists have been awarded six Nobel Prizes for their contributions to genetics, immunology, oncology, and molecular biology.<ref name="IR Nobel"/> Professor Eric Lander was one of the principal leaders of the Human Genome Project.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Positronium atoms,<ref></ref> synthetic penicillin,<ref></ref> synthetic self-replicating molecules,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and the genetic bases for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and Huntington's disease were first discovered at MIT.<ref name="MIT Firsts">Template:Cite web</ref> Jerome Lettvin transformed the study of cognitive science with his paper "What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain".<ref></ref> Researchers developed a system to convert MRI scans into 3D printed physical models.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
In the domain of humanities, arts, and social sciences, MIT economists have been awarded five Nobel Prizes and nine John Bates Clark Medals.<ref name="IR Nobel"/><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Linguists Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle authored seminal texts on generative grammar and phonology.<ref></ref><ref></ref> The MIT Media Lab, founded in 1985 within the School of Architecture and Planning and known for its unconventional research,<ref></ref><ref></ref> has been home to influential researchers such as constructivist educator and Logo creator Seymour Papert.<ref></ref>
Spanning many of the above fields, MacArthur Fellowships (the so-called "Genius Grants") have been awarded to 38 people associated with MIT.<ref name=MacArthur>Template:Cite web</ref> Four Pulitzer Prize–winning writers currently work at or have retired from MIT.<ref name=Pulitzer>Template:Cite web</ref> Four current or former faculty are members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters.<ref name=AcademyArts>Template:Cite web</ref>
Allegations of research misconduct or improprieties have received substantial press coverage. Professor David Baltimore, a Nobel Laureate, became embroiled in a misconduct investigation starting in 1986 that led to Congressional hearings in 1991.<ref name="Baltimore"></ref><ref name="Nobel Winner"></ref> Professor Ted Postol has accused the MIT administration since 2000 of attempting to whitewash potential research misconduct at the Lincoln Lab facility involving a ballistic missile defense test, though a final investigation into the matter has not been completed.<ref></ref><ref></ref> Associate Professor Luk Van Parijs was dismissed in 2005 following allegations of scientific misconduct and found guilty of the same by the United States Office of Research Integrity in 2009.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref></ref>
Discoveries and innovation
- World Wide Web Consortium – founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web<ref name="consortium">Template:Cite web</ref>
- VisiCalc – was the first spreadsheet computer program for personal computers, originally released for the Apple II by VisiCorp. MIT alum Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston rented time sharing at night on an MIT mainframe computer (that cost $1/hr for use).
- Akamai Technologies – Daniel Lewin and Tom Leighton discovered and developed a faster content delivery network and is one of the world's largest distributed computing platforms, responsible for serving between 15 and 30 percent of all web traffic.<ref name=figures></ref>
- Cryptography – MIT professors Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman developed one of the first practical public-key cryptosystems and started a company RSA (cryptosystem).
- Flight recorder (black box) – Charles Stark Draper developed the black box at MIT's Instrumentation Laboratory. That lab later made the Apollo Moon landings possible through the Apollo Guidance Computer it designed for NASA.
- Reverse transcription – David Baltimore independently isolated, in 1970 at MIT, two RNA tumour viruses: R-MLV and again RSV.<ref name="pmid4316300">Template:Cite journal</ref>
- Oncogene – Robert Weinberg discovered genetic basis of human cancer.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>
- Lithium-ion battery efficiencies – Yet-Ming Chiang and his group at MIT showed a substantial improvement in the performance of lithium batteries by boosting the material's conductivity by doping it<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> with aluminium, niobium and zirconium.
- MIT OpenCourseWare – the OpenCourseWare movement started in 1999 when the University of Tübingen in Germany published videos of lectures online for its timms initiative (Tübinger Internet Multimedia Server).<ref name=tub99>Tübinger Internet Multimedia Server Template:Webarchive</ref> The OCW movement only took off, however, with the launch of MIT OpenCourseWare and the Open Learning Initiative at Carnegie Mellon University<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> in October 2002. The movement was soon reinforced by the launch of similar projects at Yale, Utah State University, the University of Michigan and the University of California Berkeley.
- Radar – developed at MIT's Radiation Laboratory during World War II.
- Lisp (programming language) – John McCarthy invented lisp in 1958 while he was at (MIT). McCarthy published its design in a paper in Communications of the ACM in 1960, entitled "Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine, Part I".<ref name="MCCARTHY">Template:Cite web</ref>
- SKETCHPAD – invented by Ivan Sutherland as his thesis for his PhD at MIT. It pioneered the way for human–computer interaction (HCI).<ref name="SearsJacko2007">Template:Cite book</ref> Sketchpad is considered to be the ancestor of modern computer-aided design (CAD) programs as well as a major breakthrough in the development of computer graphics in general.
- Project MAC – groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation. DARPA funded project.
- Emacs (text editor) – development began during the 1970s at the MIT AI Lab.
- Perdix micro-drone – autonomous drone that uses artificial intelligence to swarm with many other Perdix drones.<ref>https://www.defense.gov/News/News-Releases/News-Release-View/Article/1044811/department-of-defense-announces-successful-micro-drone-demonstration</ref>
- Electronic ink – developed by Joseph Jacobson at MIT Media Lab.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
- GNU Project – Richard Stallman formally founded the free software movement in 1983 by launching the GNU Project at MIT.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Traditions and student activities
Template:Main article Template:See also The faculty and student body place a high value on meritocracy and on technical proficiency.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> MIT has never awarded an honorary degree, nor does it award athletic scholarships, ad eundem degrees, or Latin honors upon graduation.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> However, MIT has twice awarded honorary professorships: to Winston Churchill in 1949 and Salman Rushdie in 1993.<ref></ref>
Many upperclass students and alumni wear a large, heavy, distinctive class ring known as the "Brass Rat".<ref name="Brass Rat">Template:Cite book</ref><ref name=BrassRat2013></ref> Originally created in 1929, the ring's official name is the "Standard Technology Ring."<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The undergraduate ring design (a separate graduate student version exists as well) varies slightly from year to year to reflect the unique character of the MIT experience for that class, but always features a three-piece design, with the MIT seal and the class year each appearing on a separate face, flanking a large rectangular bezel bearing an image of a beaver.<ref name="Brass Rat"/> The initialism IHTFP, representing the informal school motto "I Hate This Fucking Place" and jocularly euphemized as "I Have Truly Found Paradise," "Institute Has The Finest Professors," "It's Hard to Fondle Penguins," and other variations, has occasionally been featured on the ring given its historical prominence in student culture.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT has over 500 recognized student activity groups,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> including a campus radio station, The Tech student newspaper, an annual entrepreneurship competition, and weekly screenings of popular films by the Lecture Series Committee. Less traditional activities include the "world's largest open-shelf collection of science fiction" in English, a model railroad club, and a vibrant folk dance scene. Students, faculty, and staff are involved in over 50 educational outreach and public service programs through the MIT Museum, Edgerton Center, and MIT Public Service Center.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
The Independent Activities Period is a four-week-long "term" offering hundreds of optional classes, lectures, demonstrations, and other activities throughout the month of January between the Fall and Spring semesters. Some of the most popular recurring IAP activities are the 6.270, 6.370, and MasLab competitions,<ref name="Discover"></ref> the annual "mystery hunt",<ref name="Globe"></ref> and Charm School.<ref name=CharmSchool>Template:Cite web</ref><ref></ref> More than 250 students pursue externships annually at companies in the US and abroad.<ref></ref><ref></ref>
Many MIT students also engage in "hacking", which encompasses both the physical exploration of areas that are generally off-limits (such as rooftops and steam tunnels), as well as elaborate practical jokes.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref></ref> Recent high-profile hacks have included the abduction of Caltech's cannon,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> reconstructing a Wright Flyer atop the Great Dome,<ref></ref> and adorning the John Harvard statue with the Master Chief's Mjölnir Helmet.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT sponsors 31 varsity sports and has one of the three broadest NCAA Division III athletic programs.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="Athletics">Template:Cite web</ref> MIT participates in the NCAA's Division III, the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference, the New England Football Conference, NCAA's Division I Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges (EAWRC) for women's crew, and the Collegiate Water Polo Association (CWPA) for Men's Water Polo. Men's crew competes outside the NCAA in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (EARC). In April 2009, budget cuts led to MIT eliminating eight of its 41 sports, including the mixed men's and women's teams in alpine skiing and pistol; separate teams for men and women in ice hockey and gymnastics; and men's programs in golf and wrestling.<ref></ref><ref></ref>
MIT enrolled 4,384 undergraduates and 6,510 graduate students in 2011–2012.Template:Update after<ref name="Enrollments">Template:Cite web</ref> Women constituted 45 percent of undergraduate students.Template:Update after<ref name="Enrollments"/><ref name="Women Enrollments">Template:Cite book</ref> Undergraduate and graduate students came from all 50 U.S. states as well as from.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
MIT received 17,909 applications for admission to the undergraduate Class of 2015: it admitted 1,742 (9.7 percent) and enrolled 1,128 (64.8 percent).Template:Update after<ref name="CDS">Template:Cite web</ref> 19,446 applications were received for graduate and advanced degree programs across all departments; 2,991 were admitted (15.4 percent) and 1,880 enrolled (62.8 percent).Template:Update after<ref name="Admission">Template:Cite journal</ref>
The interquartile range on the SAT was 2090–2340 and 97 percent of students ranked in the top tenth of their high school graduating class.Template:Update after<ref name="CDS"/> 97 percent of the Class of 2012 returned as sophomores; 82 percent of the Class of 2007 graduated within 4 years, and 93 percent (91 percent of the men and 95 percent of the women) graduated within 6 years.<ref name="CDS"/><ref name="CN">Template:Cite book</ref>
Undergraduate tuition and fees total $40,732 per student and annual expenses are estimatedTemplate:By whom? at $52,507 Welcome to Appropedia/box-header Welcome to Appropedia/Intro Welcome to Appropedia/box-footer
MIT has been nominally co-educational since admitting Ellen Swallow Richards in 1870. Richards also became the first female member of MIT's faculty, specializing in sanitary chemistry.<ref name="Bowden">Template:Cite book</ref><ref name="CHFBio">Template:Cite web</ref> Female students remained a minority prior to the completion of the first wing of a women's dormitory, McCormick Hall, in 1963.<ref>McCormickFact Sheet</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Template:Cite book</ref> Between 1993 and 2009 the proportion of women rose from 34 percent to 45 percent of undergraduates and from 20 percent to 31 percent of graduate students.<ref name="Enrollments"/><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Women currentlyTemplate:When? outnumber men in Biology, Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Architecture, Urban Planning and Biological Engineering.<ref name="Enrollments"/><ref name="Women Enrollments"/>
A number of student deaths in the late 1990s and early 2000s resulted in considerable media attention focussing on MIT's culture and student life.<ref></ref><ref></ref> After the alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger in September 1997 as a new member at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity,<ref name="Krueger"></ref> MIT began requiring all freshmen to live in the dormitory system.<ref name="Krueger"/><ref></ref> The 2000 suicide of MIT undergraduate Elizabeth Shin drew attention to suicides at MIT and created a controversy over whether MIT had an unusually high suicide rate.<ref name="Shin"></ref><ref></ref> In late 2001 a task force's recommended improvements in student mental health services were implemented,<ref></ref><ref></ref> including expanding staff and operating hours at the mental health center.<ref></ref> These and later cases were significant as well because they sought to prove the negligence and liability of university administrators in loco parentis.<ref name="Shin"/>
Faculty and staff
A 1998 MIT study concluded that a systemic bias against female faculty existed in its School of Science,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> although the study's methods were controversial.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Since the study, though, women have headed departments within the Schools of Science and of Engineering, and MIT has appointed several female vice presidents, although allegations of sexism continue to be made.<ref name="Male Domain"></ref> Susan Hockfield, a molecular neurobiologist, was MIT's president from 2004 to 2012 and was the first woman to hold the post.<ref name="Hockfield"/>
Tenure outcomes have vaulted MIT into the national spotlight on several occasions. The 1984 dismissal of David F. Noble, a historian of technology, became a cause célèbre about the extent to which academics are granted freedom of speech after he published several books and papers critical of MIT's and other research universities' reliance upon financial support from corporations and the military.<ref name="Noble"></ref> Former materials science professor Gretchen Kalonji sued MIT in 1994 alleging that she was denied tenure because of sexual discrimination. Several years later, the lawsuit was settled with undisclosed payments, and establishment of a project to encourage women and minorities to seek faculty positions.<ref name="Male Domain"/><ref>MIT as 'Intractable Enemy' Andrew Lawler; Science Careers; November 12, 1999</ref><ref name="Kalonji"></ref> In 1997, the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination issued a probable cause finding supporting UMass Boston Professor James Jennings' allegations of racial discrimination after a senior faculty search committee in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning did not offer him reciprocal tenure.<ref name="Jennings"></ref>
In 2006–2007, MIT's denial of tenure to African-American stem cell scientist professor James Sherley reignited accusations of racism in the tenure process, eventually leading to a protracted public dispute with the administration, a brief hunger strike, and the resignation of Professor Frank L. Douglas in protest.<ref name="Sherley"></ref><ref></ref> The Boston Globe reported on February 6, 2007: "Less than half of MIT's junior faculty members are granted tenure. After Sherley was initially denied tenure, his case was examined three times before the university established that neither racial discrimination nor conflict of interest affected the decision. Twenty-one of Sherley's colleagues later issued a statement saying that the professor was treated fairly in tenure review."<ref>Professor accuses MIT of racism April Simpson, Globe Staff; February 6, 2007</ref>
MIT faculty members have often been recruited to lead other colleges and universities. Founding faculty member Charles W. Eliot was recruited in 1869 to become president of Harvard University, a post he would hold for 40 years, during which he wielded considerable influence on both American higher education and secondary education. MIT alumnus and faculty member George Ellery Hale played a central role in the development of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and other faculty members have been key founders of Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering in nearby Needham, Massachusetts.
In addition, faculty members have been recruited to lead governmental agencies; for example, former professor Marcia McNutt is president of the National Academy of Sciences,<ref>Template:Cite press release</ref> urban studies professor Xavier de Souza Briggs is currently the associate director of the White House Office of Management and Budget,<ref></ref> and biology professor Eric Lander was a co-chair of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.<ref></ref> In 2013, faculty member Ernest Moniz was nominated by President Obama and later confirmed as United States Secretary of Energy.<ref name=nytimes-nominee></ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Former professor Hans Mark served as Secretary of the Air Force from 1979 to 1981. Alumna and Institute Professor Sheila Widnall served as Secretary of the Air Force between 1993 and 1997, making her the first female Secretary of the Air Force and first woman to lead an entire branch of the US military in the Department of Defense.
Template:Main article Many of MIT's over 120,000 alumni have had considerable success in scientific research, public service, education, and business. Welcome to Appropedia/box-header Welcome to Appropedia/Intro Welcome to Appropedia/box-footer
Alumni in American politics and public service include former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke, former MA-1 Representative John Olver, former CA-13 Representative Pete Stark, former National Economic Council chairman Lawrence H. Summers, and former Council of Economic Advisors chairwoman Christina Romer. MIT alumni in international politics include Foreign Affairs Minister of Iran Ali Akbar Salehi, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, President of Colombia Virgilio Barco Vargas, President of the European Central Bank Mario Draghi, former Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Raghuram Rajan, former British Foreign Minister David Miliband, former Greek Prime Minister Lucas Papademos, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, former Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Chalabi, former Minister of Education and Culture of The Republic of Indonesia Yahya Muhaimin.
MIT alumni founded or co-founded many notable companies, such as Intel, McDonnell Douglas, Texas Instruments, 3Com, Qualcomm, Bose, Raytheon, Koch Industries, Rockwell International, Genentech, Dropbox, and Campbell Soup. According to the British newspaper, The Guardian, "a survey of living MIT alumni found that they have formed 25,800 companies, employing more than three million people including about a quarter of the workforce of Silicon Valley. Those firms collectively generate global revenues of about $1.9 trillion (£1.2 trillion) a year. If MIT were a country, it would have the 11th highest GDP of any nation in the world."<ref name="Entrepreneur">Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name="Kauffman"></ref><ref></ref>
Prominent institutions of higher education have been led by MIT alumni, including the University of California system, Harvard University, New York Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University, Carnegie Mellon University, Tufts University, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Northeastern University, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Purdue University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, KAIST, and Quaid-e-Azam University. Berklee College of Music, the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world, was founded and led by MIT alumnus Lawrence Berk for more than three decades.
More than one third of the United States' manned spaceflights have included MIT-educated astronauts (among them Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin), more than any university excluding the United States service academies.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Alumnus and former faculty member Qian Xuesen was instrumental in the PRC rocket program.<ref>Template:Zh icon 钱学森：历尽险阻报效祖国 火箭之王淡泊名誉，人民网，2009年10月31日.Accessed Oct. 31, 2009; Template:Zh icon 美国航空周刊2008年度人物:钱学森．网易探索(广州)（2009年10月31日）. Accessed Nov. 11, 2009.</ref>
Noted alumni in non-scientific fields include author Hugh Lofting,<ref>Template:Cite book</ref> sculptor Daniel Chester French, guitarist Tom Scholz of the band Boston, the British BBC and ITN correspondent and political advisor David Walter, The New York Times columnist and Nobel Prize Winning economist Paul Krugman, The Bell Curve author Charles Murray, United States Supreme Court building architect Cass Gilbert,<ref name="WDL">Template:Cite web</ref> Pritzker Prize-winning architects I.M. Pei and Gordon Bunshaft.
- Kofi Annan.jpg
Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, SM 1972 (Management)
- Ben Bernanke official portrait.jpg
Former Federal Reserve Bank chairman Ben Bernanke, PhD 1979 (Economics)
- Feynman at Los Alamos.jpg
Physicist Nobel laureate Richard Feynman, SB 1939 (Physics)
- Paul Krugman-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-8.jpg
Economics Nobel laureate Paul Krugman, PhD 1977 (Economics)
- National Women's Suffrage Association.jpg
Biologist, suffragist, philanthropist Katherine Dexter McCormick (left), SB 1904 (Biology)
- Benjamin Netanyahu.jpg
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, SB 1975 (Architecture), SM 1976 (Management)
- I.M. Pei.JPG
Architect I. M. Pei, BArch 1940 (Architecture)
- Also see the bibliography maintained by MIT's Institute Archives & Special Collections, and Written Works in MIT in popular culture.
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- Nelkin, Dorothy. (1972). The University and Military Research: Moral politics at MIT (science, technology and society). New York: Cornell University Press. Template:ISBN.
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- Postle, Denis. (1965). How to be First. BBC documentary on MIT available at: http://reidplaza.com/MIT68
- Renehan, Colm. (2007). Peace Activism at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1975 to 2001: A case study, PhD thesis, Boston: Boston College.
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